315 Mastering Arrival Procedures: Common Issues and Best Practices for Instrument Pilots + GA News

Host Max Trescott delves into arrival procedures for instrument pilots, focusing on common issues and best practices. The host begins by emphasizing the importance of understanding and properly executing arrival procedures, which are often overlooked, especially for pilots not regularly flying into larger airports.

Arrival procedures, also known as Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs), facilitate the transition from enroute structure to the terminal area, streamlining air traffic flow and reducing congestion. These procedures guide pilots to specific fixes or navigational aids, ensuring a seamless lateral and vertical transition. While some STARs are requested via flight plans, controllers may assign them as needed.

The episode provides a detailed analysis of the Fernando 7 arrival at Van Nuys Airport, highlighting its unique characteristics and naming conventions. It explains how STARs typically consist of multiple parts, including branches, common waypoints, and splits leading to different runways. Understanding these components is crucial for pilots to navigate the arrival effectively.

Max also offers practical tips for pilots, such as properly loading arrival procedures into flight management systems (FMS), checking for discontinuities in flight plans, and adhering to published speed and altitude restrictions. It addresses common challenges, such as handling last-minute runway changes, interpreting ATC clearances, and ensuring accurate navigation between transitions and approaches.

He also emphasizes the importance of thorough pre-flight preparation, including studying STAR charts and anticipating potential deviations from assigned procedures. Pilots are reminded to communicate effectively with ATC regarding their capabilities and intentions, especially when unable to meet published restrictions.

Overall, the episode provides valuable insights and guidance for instrument pilots, helping them navigate arrival procedures with confidence and precision while minimizing errors and deviations.

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213 Why You Should Join a Type Club – Interview Catherine Cavagnaro

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314 Falcon Jet, N283SA Black Hole Crash in Georgia – with Rob Mark + GA News

Host Max Trescott discusses the fatal crash of a Falcon jet in Georgia with aviation expert Rob Mark. The NTSB final report revealed a series of factors contributing to the accident. These included misreading a NOTAM regarding the ILS glideslope, difficulty entering the initial approach fix into the navigation system, high and fast arrival at the final approach fix, unauthorized use of airbrakes. It’s also possible that they didn’t realize the ILS approach required flying a procedure turn. They were also flying a black hole approach in dark night conditions with minimal ground lights, but apparently weren’t referencing the PAPI visual indicator.

The captain, aged 73, had extensive flight experience but had undergone retraining due to unsatisfactory performance in certain areas. The first officer, aged 63, had a significant number of flight hours, but received only a Second in Command (SIC) type rating, because of performance issues.

The podcast delves into the transcript of communications between the flight crew and Atlanta Center, highlighting confusion regarding NOTAMs and the approach procedure. The crew, flying a cargo route from El Paso to Thomson, Georgia, requested information on the ILS approach, but there was a misunderstanding regarding the status of the glideslope and localizer. The approach required a procedure turn, which the crew seemingly missed, leading to an unstable approach.

There were delays in programming the initial approach fix (IAF) into the navigation system, possibly due to confusion over the fix’s identification. The crew ultimately crossed the IAF at an altitude significantly higher than prescribed, leading to a steep descent to intercept the glideslope.

Max created a software simulation of the final minutes of the flight that revealed a rapid descent rate and an unstable approach. Despite warnings from the captain about being high, attempts to correct the descent were ineffective, ultimately resulting in impact with trees just short of the runway. This was a classic black hole approach, in which there are few lights on the ground before the runway. A Boeing simulator study of a black hole approach showed that pilots consistently crash short of the runway, and so they must have either an electronic or visual glide slope. During this accident, the glide slope was out of service.

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#299 Flying Tips from a Military CFI for General Aviation
Google Podcasts is going away after March
Rob Mark’s JetWhine.com blog

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313 The Vmc demonstration and making multiengine training safer – Seth Lake + GA News

Max talks with Seth Lake about Vmc (Minimum Control Speed with the Critical Engine Inoperative) maneuvers, particularly focusing on their importance in multi-engine training. Seth also talks about the challenges and risks associated with VMC demonstrations and offers constructive suggestions for improving training practices in multi-engine aircraft.

Seth explains that Vmc is the minimum controllable airspeed of a multi-engine aircraft when the critical engine is inoperative, and the operative engine is at full power. The FAA mandates specific criteria for this maneuver, emphasizing the need for multi-engine pilots to understand how to control an aircraft during asymmetrical power events. VMC demonstrations are a crucial aspect of multi-engine training, requiring pilots to recover from a VMC condition during their practical tests.

The critical engine, which has the most adverse effect on the aircraft when inoperative, is typically determined by factors like P-factor, accelerated slipstream, spiraling slipstream, and torque. The interview delves into the intricacies of Vmc, including how manufacturers are allowed up to 150 pounds of rudder force for certification purposes, and highlights the challenges pilots face in maintaining control during a Vmc scenario.

Seth Lake describes an unscientific test he conducted using a force measurement tool in one of his aircraft, revealing the significant rudder forces required to hold coordinated flight in Vmc conditions. He also talks about altitude considerations during Vmc demonstrations.

The discussion then turns to the FAA’s guidelines for the Vmc demonstration during commercial check rides, examining the specific setup and recovery procedures outlined in the ACS. He also mentions a potential contradiction in other FAA publications, such as the Practical Test Standards for multi-engine instructors, and the importance of understanding these nuances.

Seth also raises concerns about the inherent risks associated with Vmc demonstrations and suggests potential improvements to the current practices. He proposes an alternative method that involves holding the ailerons neutral, using full rudder deflection, and avoiding the five degrees of bank specified in the certification criteria. This alternative method aims to increase safety by reducing the likelihood of spins and providing a more realistic experience of loss of directional control.

The interview concludes with a discussion on the impact of passenger weight on the aircraft’s center of gravity during Vmc demonstrations and highlights the need for careful considerations to enhance safety in these maneuvers.

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Incorrect Altitude Readback Leads To Near CFIT Incident
Flying Tiger Line Flight 66 Crash
Max’s Interview on Dr. Scott Dennstaedt YouTube channel

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312 How ATC Heroes Guided a Cincinnati Piper Pilot to Safety + GA News

On the afternoon of Wednesday, 7 Dec, 2022. The Cincinnati, Ohio area had been IMC all day and a single engine aircraft, based at Hogan Field (KHAO) near Cincinnati was flying instrument approaches in IMC conditions with the help of Cincinnati Approach.   

The aircraft departed Hogan field, located under the northern portion of the Cincinnati Class Bravo, and its first two instrument approaches went relatively well. It flew to the southeast at 4000 feet, and was given vectors to the RNAV (GPS) 3 Right approach @ KLUK, which is Lunken Field. After flying a low approach to minimums, it flew north to fly the RNAV (GPS) runway 01 @ I68, which is the Warren country airport.

The aircraft again flew a low approach to minimums and departed to the south, with a plan to fly the RNAV (GPS) 29 back into Hogan Field. To do that, Cincinnati Approach issued a series of vectors, and ultimately told the aircraft to fly a heading of 260 and join the runway 29 approach course.

Later the controller said “You appear to be kind of all over the place.” Subsequently, the controller declared an emergency for the pilot. The pilot was unable to fly the next instrument approach, so the controller ended up talking him down through the clouds.

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C150 Pilot Injured in Single-Engine Airplane Crash at Venango Regional Airport

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311 Flying IFR in and out of Airports with no Instrument Approaches + GA News

Max talks with Mark Kolber about Flying IFR in and out of Airports with no Instrument Approaches. Mark Kolber traces his expertise in aviation law to his background as a trial lawyer and a CFI. He emphasizes the importance of understanding rules, regulations, and procedures in IFR, highlighting that a significant portion of IFR involves adherence to regulations due to the potential impact on others.

The conversation delves into a specific scenario where a listener reports a Homeowners Association (HOA) planning to ban IFR departures from Sea Ranch, which is a private airport in Northern California. Mark clarifies that there is no regulatory prohibition for Part 91 pilots from taking off IFR from an airport without instrument approaches. He emphasizes that such departures are legal, citing examples of airports where IFR takeoffs occur regularly.

The discussion expands to explore the safety considerations associated with IFR departures in IMC from airports without instrument approaches. Mark references regulations like 91.175, which provides guidelines for IFR takeoff and landing, specifying stricter rules for landings compared to departures.

The conversation touches on the distinction between Part 91 and Part 135 operations. Mark explains that Part 135 imposes a direct prohibition on IFR operations from airports without approved standard instrument approach procedures. He highlights the role of Operational Specifications (OPSPEC) in allowing deviations from certain regulations for Part 135 operators.

Mark delves into the FAA’s assessment of airports, particularly the evaluation of obstacle departure procedures (ODP) and how they contribute to safe departures. He explains the purpose of ODPs and the FAA’s meticulous assessment process, emphasizing that private airports without instrument approaches lack such evaluations.

The podcast explores the concept of creating one’s own ODP for airports lacking official assessments. Mark suggests relying on Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) with FAA databases, incorporating local knowledge, and assessing terrain and obstacles using available tools.

Mark clarifies that Part 91 pilots have the discretion to fly or not fly ODPs unless specifically assigned by ATC. For Part 135 pilots, adherence to ODPs is mandatory unless certain exceptions apply. The conversation briefly touches on filing IFR to private airports not in the FAA’s database. Mark recommends using identifiers if available and provides insights into filing to and from using lat-long coordinates. In summary, the interview provides a comprehensive overview of IFR regulations, safety considerations, and the nuances surrounding departures and arrivals at airports without instrument approaches. The discussion is enriched by Mark Kolber’s legal and aviation expertise, offering valuable insights for both pilots and aviation enthusiasts.

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Engine Power-Loss Accident Prevention and Trend Monitoring
FAA AC 20-105C

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310 Cirrus SR20 and SR22 G7 with New Garmin Avionics + GA News

This episode discusses the new features of the G7 models of the Cirrus SR20 and SR22 aircraft, with a particular focus on avionics and other enhancements. The G7 introduces several improvements over its predecessor, the G6.

To learn the features of the new Cirrus G7, you’ll want to purchase a copy of my Max Trescott’s G3000 and G5000 Glass Cockpit Handbook, which covers virtually all of the features you’ll find in the Perspective Touch+ that’s used in the G7 and the SF50 Vision Jet. Garmin avionics are implemented in different ways in different manufacturer’s aircraft. And where there are differences, the book uses icons so that users can easily pick out the differences that apply to their version. So if you plan to fly the SR20 or SR22 G7, just look for the horizontal display icon and the letters SF50. Because those highlight the differences unique to the Perspective Touch+ that’s used in the SF50 and will now be used in the SR22 G7. To get my book, call 800-247-6553 and ask for Max Trescott’s G3000 and G5000 Glass Cockpit Handbook. You can also find a link in our show notes at aviationnewstalk.com, for ordering the book online.

One notable change is the automatic fuel tank alternation in the G7, eliminating the need for pilots to manually switch fuel tanks. This feature, borrowed from the Vision Jet, enhances fuel management and simplifies the flying experience. Additionally, the inclusion of a stick shaker, a common feature in jets, provides tactile feedback to pilots when approaching a stall, potentially improving safety.

The flap switch has also been modified, displaying flap positions and limitations on the avionics. This integration allows for new safety features, such as flaps under speed and over speed protection, preventing deployment or retraction at inappropriate airspeeds.

The G7 incorporates a lightweight lithium-ion starter battery, offering a 20-pound weight reduction compared to the G6. The smart battery monitors itself to optimize performance. The introduction of a push-button starter switch, inspired by the Vision Jet, eliminates the need for a key.

A new storage cubby below the autopilot provides convenient space for personal items, enhancing the overall user experience. Cirrus has relocated environmental controls to make them more accessible and user-friendly, resembling automotive-type air conditioning controls.

Accent lighting inside the aircraft has been improved, along with new color options and exterior designs. The changes aim to enhance the overall aesthetics and comfort of the aircraft.

Moving on to avionics, there’s some uncertainty around whether the G7 features G2000 or G3000 avionics. However, the more critical aspect is the use of Perspective Touch+, the same software found in the Vision Jet. The G7’s avionics changes align with Cirrus’s strategy to make transitioning from the SR22 to the Vision Jet more seamless for customers.

The avionics system boasts a pair of 14-inch displays with increased resolution, offering a better view for tasks such as chart viewing and weather monitoring. Unlike other installations, the G7 omits softkeys on the displays, opting for horizontally oriented touchscreen controllers below the displays. The controllers control different functions, with the left one managing the PFD and MFD, while the right one handles radios and audio. The touchscreen controllers resemble those used in the Garmin GTN 650 and 750 navigators.

Cirrus has simplified the bolster panel, integrating the oxygen switch and displaying oxygen pressure on the MFD. The system includes 3D safe taxi, displaying airport features and providing taxi routing. A Checklist Scroll Wheel, inspired by the Vision Jet, simplifies checklist navigation.

Other notable improvements include a redesigned placard for the CAPS parachute handle, addressing accessibility concerns. A restyled throttle lever and molded-in cupholders contribute to a more streamlined and user-friendly cockpit. Additional USB-C ports and drag reduction measures, such as smoother seams and redesigned wheel fairings, round out the enhancements.

In conclusion, the Cirrus SR22 G7 introduces a range of features and improvements aimed at enhancing safety, user experience, and aesthetics. The avionics upgrades align with Cirrus’s strategy to facilitate a smooth transition for pilots moving from the SR22 to the Vision Jet.

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Mentioned on the Show
AOPA ASI’s new Icing Video
Cirrus Icing Awareness Course
Pat Mullane’s Learning to Fly Book

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309 VFR into IMC and other Recent Loss of Control Accidents + GA News

Max talks about some recent VFR into IMC accidents and other weather-related loss of control accidents. VFR into IMC accidents continue to be a problem for us as GA pilots. Not only are there too many of them, but they also have the highest lethality rate of any accident type, as 90% of these accidents are fatal. They are unique to general aviation, as they are almost non-existent in airline flying. He also talks about how to calculate the bank angle required to get a standard rate turn.

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Palm Springs Air Museum

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308 Vectors to Final, Activate Approach and other Listener Questions + GA News

Max talks about why controllers in the U.S. use vectors for approaches far more often than in other countries. He also shares listener feedback on why flying own navigation may be less work than getting vectors to final. He addresses misconceptions about the Activate Approach command and exactly what it does. He also talks about the importance of keeping your GPS navigator synch with your present position. He also talks about how to Activate a Leg of a flight plan and the four common errors he sees pilots make when activating a leg. He also reads listener email, including about how ATC issues headings to establish a track, not a heading, that’s less than 30 degrees from final approach course.

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News Stories

Mentioned on the Show
FAA Weather Products survey
Channel 6 Action News Helicopter Crash
Christopher Cole’s video about his Sunriver, OR crash
Rare Historical Photos Show The Inside Of The Hindenburg Zeppelin
Classic Learjet Foundation in Wichita, Kansas

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Max Trescott’s G3000 and G5000 Glass Cockpit Handbook
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307 Texas Pilatus PC-12 N188PC Crash and Vectors to Final

Max talks about the FAA Controller Handbook rules for vectoring aircraft and how it relates to the crash of N188PC, a Pilatus PC-12 that crashed in Texas last week. He also talks about helpful tools in the Garmin G1000, G3000, Perspective and GTN 650 and 750 that you can use to tell if you might be getting a late turn from a controller that may take you through the final approach course. He also talks about how to use Garmin’s Runway Extensions and Track Vector when flying a traffic pattern, so that you never overshoot the base to final turn and always roll out on the extended centerline of the runway.

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Mentioned on the Show
N188PC Accident – Wikibase
7110.65AA Controller Handbook
FAA Instrument Procedures Handbook
FAA Instrument Flying Handbook

Max’s Books – Order online or call 800-247-6553 to order.
Max Trescott’s G3000 and G5000 Glass Cockpit Handbook
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If you love the show and want more, visit my Patreon page to see fun videos, breaking news, and other posts in the Posts section. And if you decide to make a small donation each month,  you can get some goodies!

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306 How to Pass a Checkride and Not Fail Before You Start – interview with DPE Jason Blair

Max talks with Jason Blair about the pilot examiner shortage and its impact on checkride delays. We also highlight the importance of proper paperwork and the common reasons for test discontinuation. Next, we delve into the requirements for checkride endorsements and the consequences of missing experience requirements. Jason addresses the misinterpretation of instrument rating requirements and the DPIC requirement for the commercial certificate. Finally, we discuss the qualification process for aircraft and the issues related to un-airworthy aircraft. This conversation covers the importance of documentation and airworthiness, checkride horror stories, maintenance issues and attitude, options for dealing with an unairworthy aircraft, the importance of maintenance logs, and organizing and tabbing logbooks.

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Mentioned on the Show
N17DT Cirrus SR22T Shelbyville, IN NTSB Preliminary Report
Jason Blair’s Website
Schedule a Checkride with Jason
Jason Blair’s YouTube Channel

Max’s Books – Order online or call 800-247-6553 to order.
Max Trescott’s G3000 and G5000 Glass Cockpit Handbook
Max Trescott’s G1000 & Perspective Glass Cockpit Handbook

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Free Index to the first 282 episodes of Aviation New Talk

So You Want To Learn to Fly or Buy a Cirrus seminars
Online Version of the Seminar Coming Soon – Register for Notification

Check out our recommended ADS-B receivers, and order one for yourselfYes, we’ll make a couple of dollars if you do.

Get the Free Aviation News Talk app for iOS or Android.

Check out Max’s Online Courses: G1000 VFR, G1000 IFR, and Flying WAAS & GPS Approaches. Find them all at: https://www.pilotlearning.com/

Social Media
Like Aviation News Talk podcast on Facebook
Follow Max on Instagram
Follow Max on Twitter
Listen to all Aviation News Talk podcasts on YouTube or YouTube Premium

“Go Around” song used by permission of Ken Dravis; you can buy his music at kendravis.com

If you purchase a product through a link on our site, we may receive compensation.